伊壁鸠鲁与近代宗教批判关系疏证 ——一种施特劳斯主义视角
发布时间:2017-09-06  点击数:
作  者:高山奎
关 键 词: 伊壁鸠鲁; 阿威罗伊; 马基雅维利; 霍布斯; 施特劳斯; 斯宾诺莎; 宗教批判
摘  要:

 近代启蒙宗教批判的思想资源主要包括三个传统:强调格物—修身的伊壁鸠鲁传统,讲求义理之辩的阿威罗伊传统,注重德性—勇敢的马基雅维利传统。伊壁鸠鲁传统把神祇视为扰乱人心安宁的恐惧之源;阿威罗伊传统将宗教视为政治统治的工具和精神鸦片;马基雅维利则试图否弃基督教的隐忍和禁欲德性,倡导一种与寂静主义相对立的进取精神和入世态度。比较而言,伊壁鸠鲁传统的近代复兴和人性追问,更为深入地影响了近代启蒙的宗教批判。但也应看到,近代哲人也对伊壁鸠鲁的动机(个体心安→社会安宁)、资源(原子论→人类学、自然科学)和结论(恐惧之源→谬误与枷锁)进行了大幅修正和改造,这鲜明地体现在达科斯塔、阿佩雷尔、霍布斯以及斯宾诺莎的圣经批判中。因此,清理伊壁鸠鲁的神祇批判及其在近代的挪用和修正,对理解近代启蒙宗教批判的深层脉动和思想走向具有重要的正本清源意义。

 On the Relationship between Thought of Epicurus and Modern Religious Criticism:
From Leo Strauss’ View
GAO Shankui (Shanghai Nomal University)
 
Abstract:Modern religious criticism mainly includes three traditional resources:Epicurus tradition focusing on ataraxia,Averroes tradition resorting to argumentation and Machiavelli tradition appealing to Virtue.Epicurus thinks that god is the source of the fear of disturbing peace.Averroes thinks that religion is a tool for political rule and a spirit opium.But Machiavelli tries to advocate a virtue of enterprising opposed to Christian quietism.In comparison,Epicurus tradition has most deepst affection on criticism of the modern enlightenment than the other two.However,we must notice that modern philosophers also revised motivation,resources and conclusion of Epicurus thought.It is distinctly reflected in Biblical criticism of Uriel Da Costa,Issac de la Peyrère,Thomas Hobbes and Benedict de Spinoza.Therefore,it is of significance to study on the thought of Epicurus religion critique and modern revision to the thought of Epicurus for understanding the cause and development of modem enlightenment religious criticism.
Key words:Epicurus; Averroes; Machiavelli; Hobbes; Leo Strauss; Spinoza; religious criticism
 


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