子女数、居住方式与家庭代际支持——基于城乡差异的视角
发布时间:2017-09-06  点击数:
作  者:殷俊 刘一伟
关 键 词:居住安排; 子女数; 代际支持; 城乡差异
摘  要:

子女数与居住方式影响了老人家庭代际支持,且存在显著的城乡差异。首先,无论是城镇还是农村,子女数显著提高了老人获得经济支持与精神支持的概率;但女儿数与农村老人照料支持呈显著负相关。其次,对城镇老人而言,与配偶居住挤入了子女的经济支持,但对老人获得精神慰藉起到了负向影响;独居和居住养老机构分别降低了老人获得精神支持和照料支持的概率。对农村老人而言,与配偶居住在挤入子女经济支持的同时,却挤出了子女的精神慰藉与照料支持;独居和居住养老机构对老人获得精神支持和照料支持起到负向影响。子女数调节了居住方式对老人家庭代际支持的影响。即一个理想化的结果是:子女在尊重老人选择居住方式的同时,弥补因居住方式导致家庭代际支持的缺失。

Number of Children,Way of Residence and Family Intergenerational Support:Based on the Perspective of Urban-rural Differences
 

Yin Jun & Liu Yiwei (Wuhan University)

Abstract:Since the 1990s,aging population has become a global problem.Family modernization theory predicts that the deepening of the modernization process weakening the extended kinship,and the traditional family form will become looser; the core family will become an independent unit of relatives.As one of the family systems with Chinese characteristics,children’s feedback or support to their parents after adulthood has long been of interest to scholars.However,there are significant differences between urban and rural areas, in terms of living arrangements,number of children or family intergenerational support.Urban and rural differences greatly affect the number of children and the way of residence in the family interdependence in the role played,and then how to achieve the elderly in our “old age” has a profound impact.Therefore,it is undoubtedly of great practical significance to analyze the influence of the number of children and the way of residence on the intergenerational support of the family from the perspective of urban-rural differences.
This study mainly uses the follow-up survey data of influential factors of elderly health in China in 2011,and constructs Logit regression model.It focuses on the influence of children’s number and residence style on family intergenerational support,and further analyzes the relationship between the number of children and the way of residence.
First of all,the number of children in both urban and rural areas has significantly increased the probability of economic support and mental support for the elderly.However,the number of daughters has a significant negative correlation with the care support of rural elderly.Second,for the elderly in the city,living with the spouse concerns the children’s economic support,but the elderly to obtain spiritual comfort played a negative impact; living alone and living institutions to reduce the elderly to obtain mental support and care support probability.For the elderly in rural areas,with the spouse living in the support of children’s economic support at the same time,but out of the children’s spiritual comfort and care support; living alone and living pension institutions for mental support and care support for the elderly to play a negative impact.The number of children adjusted the impact of residence on the intergenerational support of the elderly.
With the development of family living arrangements from cohabitation to separation,the trend of miniaturization of family size has become increasingly prominent,although the children are still the main source of support for the elderly,but the family structure of this change,inevitably in a certain degree weakened the child’s intergenerational support.Therefore,the government should constantly improve and develop the social security system,especially to improve the level of social security in rural areas,the formal social support embedded in the lives of the elderly to achieve social support and family support the positive complement; on the other hand,local governments earnestly carry out and implement “The Two-child Policy”,in the scope of the policy to allow China to improve the fertility rate.In short,the government should pay attention to and avoid the family structure changes on the family intergenerational support may have negative impact,in order to solve the old age of our old age,so that the elderly living peace of mind,comfortable and meditation.
 

Key words:living arrangements;number of children;intergenerational support;urban and rural differences


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