老龄化背景下的高龄劳动者就业促进问题
发布时间:2017-09-06  点击数:
作  者:喻术红
关 键 词:老龄化; 延迟退休; 就业促进; 就业歧视
摘  要:

 人口老龄化已是国际趋势。作为应对措施,延迟退休年龄,促进高龄劳动者就业是许多国家普遍采取的做法。延迟退休的实质是提高领取养老金的最低年龄。对高龄劳动者而言,由于就业竞争力不足,延迟退休很可能使他们在能够领取养老金之前处于失业境地。因此,延迟退休方案的实施,有赖于系列配套措施的执行。其中,加强对高龄群体的法律保护、反对就业歧视、促进高龄劳动者关于“高龄者”称谓,在相关研究文献中,有称“年老雇员”,有称“老年人”,也有称“高龄就业者”,还有称“中高龄就业者”。台湾地区“就业服务法”规定“中高龄者”指45岁以上未满65岁者。韩国《高龄人雇佣促进法》中将高龄人规定为55岁以上,50~54岁为准高龄者。日本高龄者为65岁及以上。我国并没有法律使用“高龄人”或“高龄者”的称呼,但在《老年人权益保护法》中将老年人限定为60周岁以上公民。目前世界许多国家研究实施延迟退休年龄的方案时,纷纷将法定退休年龄往后延至65岁,德国、新加坡预计將法定退休年龄延后至67岁,英国更是计划延后至69岁,而且预计从2020年起约每十年向上调整一岁。参见吴惠林(2014).改善我国中高龄与高龄者劳动参与之因应对策(台湾地区劳动部研究报告).台湾(地区)学术文献数据库:https://www.mol.gov.tw/media/2687946/103年度-改善我国中高龄与高龄者劳动参与之因应对策.pdf.2016-10-12.综上,本文所称“高龄者”,研究重点以50周岁为界,主要集中在50周岁至65周岁群体,因而本文中高龄劳动者,包括了60岁以上的老年人,也包括了退休后再就业群体。就业,是落实延迟退休方案必须解决的基本问题。要提高高龄劳动者的劳动参与率,必须提升他们的劳动技能、开发适合他们的工作岗位;建立专门的就业服务与指导机构,为他们提供就业咨询与指导服务;对招聘高龄劳动者达到一定比例的企业提供税收优惠,对歧视高龄劳动者的用人单位进行处罚。此外,劳动法应为高龄劳动者提供充分的保护。为此,必须修改《劳动法》和《就业促进法》相应条款,在时机成熟时制定《高龄劳动者就业促进法》。

Research on Employment Promotion of Elderly Workers under the Background of Aging
 
Yu Shuhong  (Wuhan University)
 
Abstract:The aging of the population has become an international trend.As a measure,delaying retirement age and promoting employment for senior citizens are common practice in many countries.The essence of delaying retirement is to raise the minimum age for pensioners.For older workers,late retirement is likely to make them unemployed until they can receive pensions,due to lack of employment competitiveness.Therefore,the implementation of the delayed retirement scheme depends on the implementation of a series of supporting measures.Among them,strengthening the legal protection of elderly groups,opposing employment discrimination and promoting the employment of elderly workers are the basic problems that must be solved in the implementation of the delayed retirement program.These problems are just about the inadequacies of the existing research literature.
The theme of this paper is to strengthen the protection of the rights and interests of elderly workers and promote the employment of elderly workers,which is the key to the implementation of the late retirement scheme.
The key to promoting the employment of elderly workers is to find out the main obstacles that affect the employment of elderly workers.This paper makes a comprehensive analysis of this.Based on the existing literature research,comprehensive use of data analysis,legal analysis and other methods.This article puts forward ideas to solve the problem: to improve the elderly workers labor participation rate must improve their labor skills and development for their jobs; to establish employment services and guidance of specialized agencies can provide employment counseling with the guidance service; to strengthen the role of trade union in the promotion of the elderly workers in employment; to establish the labor commonweal litigation system; to provide tax incentives for recruiting elderly workers reached a certain proportion of enterprises,to punish those employing units of discriminating the elderly workers.In addition,labor law should provide adequate protection for elderly workers.Therefore,we must amend the labor law,the Employment Promotion Law and the relevant provisions of the law on the protection of the rights and interests of the elderly,and formulate the law on the promotion of employment of the elderly workers when the time is ripe.
The innovation of the article lies in the angle of view,and analyzes the employment promotion problem of the elderly workers from the perspective of labor law,which is rarely seen in the current research results.Secondly,the view that the government focus on promoting young people’s employment should be amended,which is not only the need for equitable employment,but also the need to cope with an aging population,is also a common practice in the international community.
 
Key words:aging society; postponed retirement; employment promotion; employment discrimination


[PDF](下载数: