中国特色劳动关系的阶段、特点和趋势——基于国际比较劳动关系研究的视野
发布时间:2017-09-06  点击数:
作  者:常凯
关 键 词:雇佣关系; 产业关系; 劳动关系国际比较; 中国特色劳动关系; 劳动关系理论和研究方法; 人力资源管理
摘  要:

研究中国特色劳动关系,需要在劳动关系国际比较的视野下进行。国际比较劳动关系研究中的三组基本概念,即产业关系和雇佣关系、全球经济一体化与资本主义多样性、趋同与趋异,为中国劳动关系的研究提供了理论和方法的启示。中国的劳动关系是一种国家主导的市场经济的劳动关系。中国劳动关系的发展阶段,正在经历从个别劳动关系的构成和调整到集体劳动关系的构成和调整的转型。在传统的产业关系结构和调整正在形成的同时,各种非正规的新型雇佣关系也在发展。中国的劳动关系的基本性质特点,具有市场经济下劳动关系的一般特征,在解决矛盾的基础上实现合作是这一关系的基本特征。中国劳动关系的特色,并非表现在劳动关系的性质上,而是表现在中国市场化的劳动关系的形成过程、主体结构和调整方式上。中国劳动关系的发展趋向是,趋同是一般性,趋异是特定性。

The Developmental Stage,Characteristics and Trends of Labor Relations with Chinese Characteristics:From the International Comparative Labor Relations Perspective
 

Chang Kai (Capital University of Economics and Business & Renmin University of China)

Abstract:The study of labor relations with Chinese characteristics needs to be carried out in the context of international comparison of labor relations.The three basic concepts of international comparative research,namely,industrial relations and employment relations,global economic integration and capitalist diversity,convergence and divergence,provide theoretical and methodological implications for the study of labor relations in China.
Compared to labor relations of the free market economy and coordinated market economy,China's labor relations are a kind of state-led labor relations.In the development stage,China's labor relations have largely completed the transition from a planned economy to a market economy.The transition from individual labor relations to collective labor relations,in terms of composition and adjustment,is underway.The employment relationship based on individual labor relations is the general state of affair in labor relations in China,and industrial relations based on collective industrial relations are taking shape.As the traditional industrial structure and adjustment is being formed,a variety of informal new employment relationship is also developing.
In the context of economic globalization,the basic characteristics of China's labor relations share the general characteristics of labor relations under the market economy.The general characteristics of labor relations in the market economy refer to the economic relationship between capital and labor that is required to fulfil in the labor process and to maintain the existence of both labor and capital and thus to ensure the social production process.This relationship ischaracterized by both conflict and identity.Cooperation on the basis of resolving conflicts is the basic characteristic of this relationship.In this aspect,China's labor relations are not different from those of other market economies.
The characteristics of China’s labor relations is not manifested in the nature of labor relations;rather,it is manifested in the formation process,institutional structure and adjustment method of labor relation in the marketization process.This is mainly demonstrated in the fact that China’s marketised labor relations is a social economic transition achieved as a result of a top-down reform directed by the government.The main structure of China’s labor relations contains the following characteristics.First,there is a sharp economic power imbalance between capital and labor,leading to extreme mismatch in political rights and organizing rights.Second,workers are in a state of unorganized or self-organized,therefore what constitutes a labor-capital-state tripartite system existed internationally takes the form of ‘tripartite and four institutional actors’.Third,the Communist Party is involved in labor relations.The characteristics of China’s labor relations adjustment mode consists of multiple channels of adjustment including:legal adjustment,political adjustment,administrative adjustment,social adjustment and so forth,as a comprehensive governance mode.
Convergence is the general feature and divergence is the unique feature in the trends of development of China’s labor relations.Convergence means the sameness in terms of the general nature of labor relations,including,for example,the economic nature of the employment relationship,the subordination of individual employment,the inevitability of labor solidarity,and the conflict and cooperation of capital and labor.Divergence refers to how specific systems and mechanisms of labor relations such as configuration of labor relations and the adjustment methods may differ from that of other countries in the process of development and continuous adjustment based on the country’s characteristics.
 

Key words:employment relationship;industry relations;international comparison of labor relations;labor relations with Chinese characteristics;theory of labor relations and research methods;human resource management


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