西方民主一个新动向:抽签的理论与实践
发布时间:2017-07-06  点击数:
作  者:王绍光
关 键 词:选举民主; 代议民主; 抽签; 商议式民调; 公民大会
摘  要:

21世纪可以说是抽签这一古老民主形式重生的世纪。首先,随着代议民主陷入危机,学者们开始从理论层面对选举民主进行系统反思,抽签理论就这样从边缘进入主流,尤其是21世纪开局的这16年,关于抽签理论的研究成果呈井喷之势。尽管学者们在关于抽签的适用领域以及运用方式上并未达成最后共识,但其理论努力的方向却始终是一致的,即必须进一步开发抽签这种民主形式的潜能。至于实践层面的抽签实验,可以追溯到更早的20世纪70年代。进入21世纪后,抽签试验遍布各国的最引人注目的两种形式为“商议式民调”和“公民大会”,其中中国就是试点“商议式民调”最多的国家。对于抽签这一民主利器的最终成效,我们将拭目以待。

 
A New Trend of Western Democracy: Theory and Practice of Sortition
 
Wang Shaoguang (Tsinghua University)
 
Abstract:The 21st century can be said to be a century of rebirth of the ancient democratic form of sortition. First of all, as the representative democracy plunged into crisis, scholars began to reflect systematically on the electoral democracy from the theoretical perspective, and sortition research thus entered the mainstream from the edge. Especially during the first 16 years of 21st century, the theoretical research achievements have been booming. Although the scholars have not reached a final consensus on the application area and methods of sortition, their theoretical direction has always been the same, which means the potential of sortition must be further developed. As for the practical level of sortition, it can be traced back to the 1970s. After entering the 21st century, the two most spectacular types of sortition experiments were Deliberative Polling and Citizens’ Assembly, of which China is the most experimental country of Deliberative Polling. For the ultimate effectiveness of this democratic tool for sortation, we will wait and see.
 
Key words:electoral democracy; representative democracy; sortation; Deliberative Polling; Citizens’ Assembly
 


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